Direct effect of EU’s investment agreements and the Energy Charter Treaty in the EU

A. Introduction This paper deals with a two-fold issue. The first issue is whether or not the new generation of European investment agreements, replacing existing BITs of Member States with third countries, will have direct effect in the EU. The second issue is whether or not the ECT, or to be more precise its Part III on investment promotion and protection, has direct effect. B. No-Direct Eff [...]

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